At first the two main centers of . Soviet activity in Mahabad dates from the time two of these agents, known as . exiled, first in southern Iraq, then in Suleimania. Oct 31, - After the defeat of the Ottoman Empire in the First World War, British forces occupy the they join Iranian Kurds led by Qazi Mohamed, who founds an independent Kurdish state in Mahabad. .. Date set for referendum. In this article I report on what is known about the first Kurdish periodicals in Iran and (the Turkish name, meaning "cold water spring," for the current Mahabad) with special attention to of Christians that took place then under Sultan Abdul Hamid in Ottoman areas. .. The problem is no sample has been unearthed to date.
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As for what to text, unless there are some extenuating or scary circumstances that happened while you were on the date together, Mahabad in date First then a first date you should steer clear of asking someone to text you when they get home safely.
While some women will certainly find this sweet, it can come across as kind of parental, which is the antithesis of horny. Text when you have something interesting to say and no, complaining about your workday is not interesting.Would You Kiss On The First Date? - Undressed
Nor will compliments —a compliment after a first date feels like a review. While complimenting someone is inherently nice, fawning over a person via text becomes tedious and often uncomfortable quickly. Rather than feeling flattered, I felt weirded out that he was playing back the date that I was on.
Advertisement Instead, send texts full of New Fun Plans. Aim for at least male in Married Youghal looking days between dates. Do you want to go to Cheesecake Factory with me?
Lastly, whatever you do, and no matter how horny you are, do not text anything sexual. It is not difficult to ascribe the Lutheran losses directly to their goal of evangelizing Kurdish Muslims.
It is this antipathy toward Christians in general, and toward missionaries in particular, that may affect the understanding of the significant role that nearly three decades of missionary schools in Soujbulak played in the advancement of Kurdish culture including the periodical presseducation, and the prelude to forming the climate that supported the rise of the first actualization of Kurdish nationalism in the form of the Mahabad Mahabad in date First then Missionary Goals And The Periodical Press Integral to their evangelizing goal, the missionaries regarded the spreading of literacy necessary--not just the spoken word or the prayer recited by rote, but the written word as read by the convert himself.
For this reason, whether among Assyrians or among Kurds, essential to their task was the commitment of the indigenous vernacular language to paper, the institution of schools, then printing and, if possible, a Mahabad in date First then press. Not just Mahabad in date First then Iran or the Middle East, but everywhere American, especially Protestant, missionaries ventured, they brought literacy, often the first application of any orthographic system to a vernacular language.
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Mahabad in date First then Often in remote languages or dialects such as Kurmanji, and even Sorani, the first printing to be done was that of one or all the four gospels; i. The American Bible Society had in Mahabad in date First then specifically engaged an Assyrian professor at Columbia University, Abraham Yohannanto help in the preparation of the first Syriac bible in Some of the earliest Kurdish Christian material grew out of the Lutheran presence in Soujbulak.
Detwig von Oertzen published his translation of the second Gospel as Markus-evangelium mukri kurdische in 17and Dr. In keeping with the goal of providing educational facilities, despite disruptions caused by insecurity for the members of the Lutheran Mission, they would establish schools, an orphanage, and engage in the equally desired medical work for which the Americans became so indispensable in Urmia and in all of Iran.
The composition of the Lutheran Mission in Soujbulak variously included physicians, at least one female nurse, and always, religious personnel. The longest serving of these pastors was Ludvig Olsen Fossum, who had come with his wife and infant daughter. Fossum's family went back to the United States, but his sister, a nurse, eventually joined the mission.
All of the missionaries were subject to "fever," in all likelihood the malaria so prevalent in the Mahabad in date First then up to the s. His translation of the Battle Hymn of the Reformation into Kurdish 3 versesthe first and perhaps only Kurdish translation of A Mighty Fortress is our God Martin LutherMahabad in date First then on the occasion of the Quadricentennial of the Protestant Reformation.
Mahabad in date First then fell ill and died while serving as a coordinator of Near East Relief in Yerevan, Armenia inall the while trying to return to Soujbulak after evacuating the town in February During the War years, Fossum pleaded for relief aid for the Kurds and became very upset when his calls were ignored and American Christian publications solicited relief aid only for the Armenians and Assyrians.
He wrote to the Lutheran Society in the United States, "The massacres and all the carnage of War that befell the Armenians, have also befallen the Kurds, only a little later. Allen, a Presbyterian missionary from Urmia, who received permission from Russians holding military power in the area from to to visit Soujbulak.
Allen wrote, "I have been to Soujbulak, and seen the misery and distress of the Kurds Thousands are in rags and begging in the streets. All kinds of diseases are raging A drought had destroyed the wheat harvest, but other food supplies, though adequate, were subject to the disruption of village life and insecurity on the roads.
This is particularly true of periodicals that, more than books, tended to carry news in the early 20th century. Whether periodicals or books, the literate would read aloud to the illiterate or semi-literate, as well as to those Mahabad in date First then did not own books or subscribe to periodicals.
In the case of the Kurdish periodical press, it is important to keep in mind the historical setting in order to get a clear picture of how three Kurdish language publications are listed Mahabad in date First then having appeared, but only one can be found--as yet. This publication is not to be confused with Kurdish language publications from northwest Iran. It appeared monthly between andin English. This is the first periodical in any non-Middle Eastern Mahabad in date First then to carry the word "Kurdistan" in its title.
For this reason alone, it merits attention. From the publication was edited by Mons Olson Wee Wee, a Norwegian professor at one of the St.
Paul Lutheran Colleges, was a strong advocate of Haugeanism, the socio-political revival movement that took root in 18" century Norway. He and N. Lohre, the president of the Lutheran Orient Mahabad in date First then, became strong advocates for Kurdish relief in the face of continued American reluctance to recognize a Muslim humanitarian need, especially when the Kurds were associated with a substantial portion of the attacks on local Christians.
For example, Miss Augusta Gudhart, a registered nurse of German descent from Poland, was consecrated at the Philadelphia church that sponsored her travel and upkeep. At the same time, the congregation took up an offering to help the Kurds in Soujbulak.
George Bachimont from Alcaselocated in Hermannsburg Germany. This active Lutheran community supported both Kurdish and Assyrian missions but could not meet expenses in "due to what war did to the mark.
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Missionaries of that era acted much like a combination of current non-governmental agencies and journalists. Often theirs were the only eyes and ears in remote parts of the Middle East, China, India and Africa informing the American middle and upper class of events in far off places. Since Mahabad in date First then Christian periodicals, the Christian Herald for example, enjoyed wide distribution in the United States during the first half of the 20th century, rivaling secular publications, attention to Kurds in this sector of the press helped to make them favorably known.
Moreover, national leaders such as John Raleigh Mottwinner of the Nobel Peace Prizeplayed a key role in the interface between Western governments and missionary endeavors, Mahabad in date First then those in the Near East. For this reason, he was featured prominently in TKM. In fact he may well have made popular the estimated number of Kurds worldwide, 3, TKM circulation included Mahabad in date First then, churches and individuals.
It supported itself through subscriptions. The monthly issues kept to a regular schedule and, when news of Kurdistan grew thin, the editor supplemented contents with articles on Islam, the Koran and aspects of Muslim life, as well as reprints of articles from other Christian Protestant publications, not from Iran or the Near East, but from Africa, India or China.
The exclusive attention Mahabad in date First then the Near East to things Kurdish is striking, even afterwhen members of the Kurdish Lutheran Mission were unable to return to Soujbulak. The Kurdistan Missionary is a very useful source of information about events in Soujbulak and in neighboring towns. During WWI, access to their base, and all of what has become West Azerbaijan, was barred owing to fighting between Cossacks and gendarmerie in the aftermath of the Iranian Constitutional Revolution and the breakdown of order in Iran.
The pre-World War I pictures published in TKM, whenever Fossum was able to make a trip to Tabriz for more photographic plates, may be among Mahabad in date First then best and oldest from Soujbulak. The maps that he attempted to draw of Kurdish regions are also useful. The American periodical continued to carry what information it could while insisting that "the Lutheran Church of America comes as a whole to realize our vision: Kurdistan for Christ.
The paucity of Kurdish names and references is especially striking.
Fossum had packed a camera and made many pictures of Kurdish children and groups of men, many of which appear in TKM. Relations with individual Kurds, however, appeared to have been intermittent.
The main person mentioned regularly was Isma'il Agha Simko k. Various other Kurds mentioned are local notables, their wives, and Mustafa Kasi, a Kurdish medical student in Istanbul's Haydar Pasha [Hospital] University and the son of a Soujbulak notable.
All other local persons noted are Jews, Armenians or diplomatic personnel, mainly Russian. One poorly identified group in Soujbulak are people referred to as "Mosulis," who appear to Mahabad in date First then merchants, possibly Chaldean Catholics and therefore not part Mahabad in date First then the Protestant group at services.
Particularly helpful to the Lutherans was the Mirza Schmuel family, Christian Jews Aramaic speakers who traveled with the missionaries when they fled Soujbulak, mainly to avoid starvation, not attack, they insisted. When Mirza Schmuel, Rev. Even after the murders of Rev.
Immanuel Dammann30 an aspiring Kurdologist, and Rev. George Bachimontthe editors resist blaming Mahabad in date First then, and instead ask, "Can we let 3. This same conviction drove members of the Lutheran Orient Mission nearly one hundred years earlier to persist in their apparently fruitless task of conversions in Soujbulak. Current interest in converting Kurds is also fed by materials on Kurdish websites touting the existence of "Christian Kurds.
Let us turn now to what has thus far been established in Mahabad in date First then about the earliest Kurdish periodical press in Iran.
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Kurdish Language Periodicals From West Azarbaijan The Kurdish periodical press celebrated its Mahabad in date First then th anniversary in but the Kurdish periodical, Kurdistan, that began the now accelerated production of Kurdish periodical titles, originated in British Egypt.
In Iran and the Ottoman Empire, where Kurds actually Mahabad in date First then, Kurdish periodicals arrived some dozen years later. The first Kurdish Mahabad in date First then published in the Ottoman Empire appeared in Istanbul after the liberalization that followed the adoption of the constitution. When did the Kurdish language press appear in Iran? In Iran, a spurt of Kurdish language publishing accompanied the formation of the Mahabad Republic when the Soviets supplied their Kurdish allies in Nevers Slut a printing press.
A printing press must have been available also in Tabriz. All these publications, like those preceding them in Iran, appeared in the modified Arabic alphabet. By the level of literacy in Persian had increased dramatically among all urban residents of northwest Iran with the establishment of public schools in major towns and exclusive instruction in Persian, even for those whose native language was not Persian.
Despite the hardship this imposed, urban children began reading Persian. The transition to Kurdish from Persian would not have been difficult for those students who in Mahabad gained the opportunity to study in Kurdish with the declaration of the Republic. Kurds and Persians use the same alphabet. Thus far, however, sources have been unclear as to where, when, and under what auspices the first Kurdish periodicals in Iran made their appearance.