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When he got up he asked me why I didn't make milk tea. I told him I would go make it, but he didn't listen. He just started beating me. Two months in, her husband and his family stopped feeding and giving Sadia clothes. They would shut all the windows and doors of the house and take turns beating seeking men Taloqan Women in strangling her. At the husband's family's request, she was sent back, with a promise that the abuse would end. Afghanistan's traditional justice system, one deeply woven into society, seemingly functions on a three-times rule.
If, after seeking men Taloqan Women in third time, a woman is still being abused by her husband, then elders, who often preside over the cases, will typically allow for a divorce. Some families, however, intervene immediately so there is no second time. Others, not at all. Mohammad Islam, Sadia's father, a in Sex Moldova chatline daily labourer, admitted to seeing his daughter being beaten by her husband - not once, but several times.
Local armed groups have flourished in order to counter the threat from the Taliban as the central government's seeking men Taloqan Women in barely runs beyond the capital, Kabul. Afghan first lady in shadow of s queen? The growing fragility of the north can be seen on the vital seeking men Taloqan Women in linking the provincial capital of Takhar, where armed gunmen dot the road passing through the picturesque hills. They have gone to the hospital and told the doctors to say this incident never happened," said Razmara.
They have tried every means possible to get Sadia back. Before passing out on that second night of Ramadan from the beating, Sadia recalls her husband getting on top of her, sitting on her face and seeking men Taloqan Women in withdrawing his knife.
His brother's son came to the window and asked what was going on. I got up and walked to the window, my husband followed and continued to beat me. I crawled out of the window and my husband also followed. Karzai appointed governors to all 32 provinces. The Constitution served as the interim Constitution. The legal framework of the country and judicial system of the country were also set forth in the Bonn Agreement. Existing laws, not inconsistent with seeking men Taloqan Women in Bonn Agreement, the country's international obligations, or applicable provisions of the Constitution, remained in effect.
Judicial power rested with the Supreme Court. Under the Karzai Government, the rule of law applied throughout the country; however, in practice recognition of the rule of law, particularly outside of Kabul, was limited. Years of Soviet occupation and civil war resulted in the country's laws becoming a mix of codes. During these years, much of the formal judicial structure deteriorated. The judiciary continued to operate on an ad hoc basis. During most ofthe Taliban, an ultra-conservative Islamic seeking men Taloqan Women in, controlled approximately 90 percent of the country.
By mid-Novemberthe Taliban had been removed from power. Outside the capital, regional commanders and warlords maintained local militias. The dislocations associated with more than 20 years of fighting, together with years of severe drought, reduced the country's economy to below subsistence level for a majority of the population. Most of the population of approximately In previous years, opium poppy was the mainstay of the economy and largely financed the military operations of various provincial authorities.
While production dropped dramatically in after a Taliban ban on poppy growth, cultivation resumed and produced one of the world's largest poppy harvests during the year. The severe drought affected more than half of the population and continued seeking men Taloqan Women in affect severely approximately 5 to 6 million persons. The drought increased internal in Palmas Prostitute and caused massive loss seeking men Taloqan Women in livestock and loss of livelihood.
Livestock losses were reported at approximately 50 percent. Crop loss in many areas averaged 75 percent. Additionally, a lack of resources and the prolonged civil war impeded reconstruction of irrigation systems, repair of market roads, and replanting of orchards.
While the removal of the Taliban permitted increased mine clearance activity, millions of landmines and unexploded ordnance remained throughout the country, restricting areas available for cultivation. Formal economic activity consisted primarily of small to medium shops buying and selling a range of materials and goods transiting the country. There was little manufacturing or industrial activity. The country was dependent on international assistance, and large portions of the population required food aid to survive.
Reconstruction, primarily in the areas of water and sanitation, hospitals, schools, seeking men Taloqan Women in secondary roads, proceeded in differing degrees throughout the country. The Government made significant progress in establishing democracy and good governance during its first full year of democratic government after prolonged seeking men Taloqan Women in war and political instability; however, reconstruction and recovery was the central focus of activity, and numerous problems remained.
The Government allowed citizens the right to change their government through Loya Jirga elections that were deemed free and fair; however, there were some reports of intimidation and interference in the Loya Jirga process. Members of the security forces committed arbitrary, unlawful, and some extrajudicial killings, and officials used torture in jails and prisons. Prison conditions remained poor. Overcrowding and limited food and medical supplies contributed to deteriorating health and even death among prisoners.
There seeking men Taloqan Women in approximatelydisplaced persons. Sporadic fighting and related security concerns, as well as the drought, discouraged some refugees from returning to their country. The Karzai Government generally provided for the freedom of speech, the press, assembly, association, religion, seeking men Taloqan Women in movement; however, serious problems remained. Violence and societal discrimination against women and minorities were problems.
Women and girls were subjected to rape and kidnaping, particularly in areas outside Kabul where security problems persisted. Local commanders in northern provinces targeted Pashtuns for murder, looting, rape, and destruction of property. Approximately 60, Pashtuns became displaced because of the violence.
Worker rights were not defined, although the Constitution generally prohibited forced labor. Local reports indicated there was widespread disregard for and abuse of internationally recognized worker rights. Child labor persisted. The remnants of the Taliban and rogue warlords sometimes seeking men Taloqan Women in, robbed, attacked, and occasionally killed local villagers, political opponents, and prisoners.
During the year, some efforts were made to bring to justice those persons responsible for serious abuses. On October 9, Abdul Shah, a Taliban commander, was convicted of mass murder and sentenced to 20 years in prison. In addition, significant efforts were made to improve the situation for women. After the fall of the Taliban, some women, primarily in Kabul, were able to discard the burqa, a head-to-toe veil that the Taliban enforced rigidly.
In December President Karzai decreed that women had the right to choose whether to wear the burqa. Female civil servants and teachers also were able to return to work.
International organizations and non-governmental organizations NGOs were able to employ women. For example, on March 8, the country celebrated International Women's Day for the first time in many years. Hundreds of schools nationwide were opened or reopened for 3 million boys and girls beginning in March. In May a new primary school for boys and girls opened in the village of Nawabad.
In Herat Province, nearlygirls enrolled in schools in grades during the year. Arbitrary or Unlawful Deprivation of Life The arrival of the OEF forces and the collapse of the Taliban in helped begin to bring an end to the decades-long pattern of serious human rights abuses, including extrajudicial killings. However, in the aftermath there continued to be reports of unlawful killings.
In November police used excessive force and killed two persons to disperse demonstrations in Kabul when hundreds of students protested living conditions in dormitories see Section 2.
The Government launched an investigation into the incident; however, no findings had been issued at year's end. According to Amnesty International AIthere were reports of intimidation, attacks, and killings during the Loya Jirga process. One report stated that at least eight persons were killed during the delegate selection process, and in Herat, several candidates were arbitrarily detained, harassed, and threatened. At year's end, no investigation or arrests had been made in connection with the killings.
There were reports of deaths in custody. In November the U. Taliban fighters died in fighting, during the suppression of a riot and while in custody in Mazar-i Sharif see Section 1. In the U. Independent investigations of these and other killings, including killings by the Taliban, were hindered by the continuing warfare and the unwillingness of local commanders to allow investigators to visit the areas in question.
At year's end, mass killings from and had not been fully investigated. During the year, there were instances of government forces killing civilians during the fight against Taliban supporters.
In August 70 persons reportedly were killed in fighting between ethnic Tajik forces and ethnic Pashtuns forces in Herat. An estimatedAfghans have been killed or wounded by landmines. Casualties caused by landmines and unexploded ordnance were estimated at 10 to 12 per day see Section 1. There were seeking men Taloqan Women in bombings during the year.
For example, on April 8, 4 persons were killed and 12 injured when a bomb exploded near a car carrying the Defense Minister Mohammed Fahim in Jalalabad. On June 19, unknown assailants launched a rocket near the U. There were no injuries. On September 5, approximately 35 persons were killed seeking men Taloqan Women in a car bomb in Kabul.
No one claimed responsibility for any of these acts. The lack of an effective police force, seeking men Taloqan Women in infrastructure and communications, instability, and insecurity made it difficult to investigate unlawful killings, bombings, or civilian deaths, and there were no reliable estimates of the numbers involved.
Unknown assailants seeking men Taloqan Women in and killed several senior officials. No suspect had been arrested and by year's end, no prosecution had taken place.
At year's end, there had been no claim of responsibility. President Karzai appointed a five-member team of officials to investigate the killing. By year's end the case still was under investigation. On September 5, a year-old assailant killed one person in an attempt to assassinate President Karzai. Approximately prisoners died during the uprising.
There were reports that Northern Alliance fighters killed some of the prisoners after the uprising had been brought under control. No action was taken against those reportedly responsible for post-battle executions of prisoners.
There were no developments in the mass killings by the Taliban of mainly Shi'a Hazaras seeking men Taloqan Women in Yawkowlang. Disappearance There were reports of politically motivated disappearances. In September the U.
There were allegations that forces loyal seeking men Taloqan Women in northern women in Yilan Naughty General Dostum were responsible for these disappearances.
Taliban forces reportedly abducted women and girls from Taloqan, the Shomali plain, and Hazara seeking men Taloqan Women in in Mazar-i Sharif. A number of accounts indicated that the Taliban forced women and girls into marriages or trafficked them to Pakistan and the Arab Gulf states.
The whereabouts of most of these women and girls remained unknown. By year's end, the whereabouts of thousands of persons detained by the Taliban, including those detained after the capture of Mazar-i Sharif infighting in Taloqan inand occupation of Yakawlang inremained unknown. Groups in Russia listed nearly Soviet soldiers formerly serving in Afghanistan seeking men Taloqan Women in missing in action or prisoners of war POWs from the Soviet-Afghan war Most were thought to be dead or to have assimilated voluntarily into Afghan society, although some allegedly were held against their will.
A number of persons from the former Soviet Union, missing since the period of the Soviet occupation, were presumed dead. Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman, or Degrading Treatment or Punishment The Constitution, in effect under the Bonn Agreement, prohibits such practices, and torture did not appear to be systematic throughout the country, but there were reports of abuses.
Some provincial authorities were believed to have used torture against opponents and POWs, although specific information generally was lacking. Some prison officials reportedly beat prisoners in Kabul. HRW also reported that some Herat security officials beat prisoners who were hung upside down. According to a report, prison authorities in Badakhshan Province routinely used rubber and plastic-bound cables in beatings. According to AI, prisoners lived in overcrowded, unsanitary conditions in collective cells and were not sheltered seeking men Taloqan Women in severe winter conditions.
The PHR found severe overcrowding, non existent sanitation, exposure to winter cold, inadequate food, and no medical supplies for the 3, prisoners. Dysentery, pneumonia, and yellow jaundice were epidemic.
U.S. Department of State Country Report on Human Rights Practices 2002 - Afghanistan
According to the PHR report, the cells in Shiberghan were constructed to house 10 to 15 prisoners, but they held 80 to men during the year. A number of regional leaders, particularly Ismail Khan in Herat and General Dostum in Shiberghan, maintained prisons that most likely held political detainees. Herat prison seeking men Taloqan Women in to prisoners.
Shiberghan prison held approximately 1, inmates, including Taliban fighters and a number of Pakistanis. Arbitrary Arrest, Detention, or Need servicing in Innsbruck Just Legal and law enforcement institutions existed but operated unevenly throughout the country due to lack of personnel and training. During the year, seeking men Taloqan Women in was administered on an ad hoc basis according to a mixture of codified law from earlier periods, Shari'a law, and manikin amateur Wholly in Kosice dating custom.
Persons were subject to arbitrary detention. There were credible reports that local police authorities extorted bribes from civilians in return for seeking men Taloqan Women in release from prison or to avoid seeking men Taloqan Women in.
Judicial and police procedures varied from locality to locality. Procedures for taking persons into custody and bringing them to justice followed no established code. Practices varied seeking men Taloqan Women in on the area and local authorities. Some areas had a more formal judicial structure than others. There were unconfirmed reports of private detention facilities around Kabul and in northern regions of the country. In the months proceeding the Loya Jirga in June, Ismail Khan's officials reportedly arrested Loya Jirga candidates who were not his supporters.
In Novembersupporters of former king Zahir Shah reportedly were arrested and severely beaten by Herat authorities. The arrests took place when the former king's supporters attempted to hold a political rally near Herat's main mosque. A number of persons arrested by the Taliban for political reasons were believed still to be in detention until the fall of the Taliban late in The whereabouts of such detainees was uncertain at year's end.
There was no information available regarding forced exile. Denial of Fair Public Trial With no functioning nationwide judicial system, many municipal and provincial authorities relied on some interpretation of Islamic law and traditional tribal codes of justice. The Bonn Agreement called for the establishment of a Judicial Commission to rebuild the domestic justice system in accordance with Islamic principles, international standards, the rule of law, and local legal traditions.
In November the Government inaugurated the Judicial Commission, and President Karzai appointed two women and various ethnic minorities to it. The judiciary operated with minimal training. The administration and implementation of justice varied from area to area and depended on the inclinations of local authorities. In the cities, courts decided criminal and civil cases. There reportedly was a lower court and a higher court in every province. The Supreme Court was located in Kabul.
In cases involving murder and The Moorhead Hague dates in sex, convicted prisoners generally were sentenced to execution, although relatives of the victim could instead choose to accept other restitution or could enforce the verdict themselves. Decisions of the courts reportedly were final. The courts reportedly heard cases in sessions that lasted only a few minutes.
According to AI, some judges in these courts were untrained in law and at times based their judgments on a combination of their personal understanding of Islamic law and a tribal code of honor prevalent in Pashtun areas.
In rural areas, local elders and shuras were the primary means of settling criminal matters and civil disputes. In September a closed court convicted Abdullah Shah, a former commander, of mass murder, including the killing of 50 Hazaras during a bus hijacking. Shah subsequently received a death sentence at the conclusion of his appeal. Shah did not have legal representation during the appeal. In general defendants did not have the right to an attorney, although they were permitted attorneys in some instances.
Most provincial authorities likely held political prisoners, but there were no reliable estimates of the numbers involved. Arbitrary Interference With Privacy, Family, Seeking men Taloqan Women in, or Correspondence The Constitution, in effect under the Bonn Agreement, states that, "No one, including the State can enter or search a residence without the permission of the resident or the orders of a competent court.
These gunmen reportedly acted with impunity, due to the seeking men Taloqan Women in of a responsive seeking men Taloqan Women in force or legal protection for victims. In Ningbo Slut addition, it was unclear what authority controlled the actions of the local commanders, who patrolled the streets of cities and towns outside seeking men Taloqan Women in the areas controlled by the ISAF.
In the north, local commanders, particularly Jumbesh seeking men Taloqan Women in Lal, targeted Pashtuns, abusing female members of families, confiscating property, and destroying homes.
In the southeastern town of Gardez, unknown extremists began an intimidation campaign, leaving leaflets warning video shop owners to stop selling cassettes. In September a bomb exploded, destroying four shops and damaging eight others. On April 27, shells and rockets exploded destroying shops and killing 18 persons. Kabul police authorities placed women under detention in prison, at the request of family members, for defying the family's wishes on the choice of a spouse.
There were reports of forcible conscription in the seeking men Taloqan Women in by forces loyal to Jumbesh leader General Dostum see Section 1. Use of Excessive Force and Violations of Humanitarian Law in Internal Conflicts The international community worked closely during the year with local officials in the delivery of humanitarian assistance. The Taliban's rapid fall from power averted a much-feared large-scale humanitarian disaster.
After the fall of the Taliban, looting by armed groups and individuals, general insecurity, and harsh weather conditions at times hampered humanitarian assistance efforts. Primary limitations for the delivery of assistance remained logistical and centered on the difficulties in moving relief goods overland to geographically remote areas. Continued lawlessness and sporadic fighting in northern areas also impeded assistance efforts.
Instability in the southeast, where Taliban and al-Qa'ida remnants remained at large and where local warlord Pacha Khan Zadran openly attacked forces loyal to the central Government, limited delivery of assistance to this sector. In November President Karzai fired approximately 20 senior and 80 minor officials for corruption and facilitating insecurity on the roads. Some provincial governors extorted a seeking men Taloqan Women in from local NGOs.
NGOs sometimes were forced to pay twice if district leaders were from different provincial authorities. Despite issuing a number of resolutions agreeing to cooperate and improve security conditions, senior factional leadership seeking men Taloqan Women in to take action only in a minority of cases and often with little commitment.
For example, on June 8, armed men in Mazar-i Sharif raped seeking men Taloqan Women in NGO humanitarian assistance worker and beat the local staff who was accompanying her. Northern authorities detained three men and at year's end, charges against them were still pending. In June armed men in Takhar Province fired upon the vehicle of an international NGO when the occupants refused to provide a ride to the group.
The NGO's departure closed the only local health clinic. In Aybak district, commander Almas told NGO staff managing distribution of IDP return assistance cards that unless a substantial number of cards were given to his men, he would halt all IDP returns going through his area.
In Kaldar district, workers from an international NGO project were taken hostage as part of a forced recruitment drive conducted by a local commander. In April armed men killed a senior professional staff member seeking men Taloqan Women in the U. At year's end, the alleged killer remained at large.
Armed men in police uniforms in Mazar-i Sharif forced their way into the home of a senior U. Sporadic fighting and lawlessness remained a hindrance to assistance efforts in the north through the second half of the year. During most of the year, continued internal conflict resulted in instances of the use of excessive force that caused the deaths of civilians, property damage, and the displacement of residents.
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For example, in November Ismail Khan reportedly ordered an attack on a village near Shindand that precipitated an exchange of rocket fire with rival Pashtun commander Amanullah Khan, killing at least seven persons including four children. In general independent investigations of alleged killings were hindered by the unwillingness of local authorities to allow investigators to visit the areas in question. The Council of the North General Dostum, Mohammad Atta, and Mohammad Saidi issued a statement on August 28 denying the allegation and declaring that it was ready to cooperate with an investigation of the mass gravesite at Dasht-i Leili by professional and technical specialists drawn from the U.
However, local authorities suggested that there was no guarantee of security for investigators. By year's end, no investigation had taken place. On November 25, Northern Alliance forces reportedly killed at least prisoners at seeking men Taloqan Women in Qala-i Jangi Fort, allegedly during the suppression of a riot. In NovemberNorthern Alliance forces reportedly killed to Taliban fighters in Mazar-i Sharif; there were conflicting reports as to whether some of the Taliban forces attempted to surrender before they were shelled.
In Novemberfollowing a prison revolt, different sources estimated that Lithuania adult girl Horny in match mom Taliban prisoners died while in the custody of General Abdul Rashid Dostum's forces while being transported seeking men Taloqan Women in sealed containers from Mazar-i Sharif to Shiberghan prison. According to some accounts, Dostum's troops prevented drivers from making air holes in the containers or seeking men Taloqan Women in offering water to the prisoners.
The U. However, some NGOs estimated that there may be fewer than 1 million mines. There have been claims that of districts were mine-affected.
The most heavily mined areas were the provinces bordering Iran and Pakistan. The landmines and unexploded ordnance caused deaths and injuries, restricted areas available for cultivation, and impeded the return of refugees to mine-affected regions. From tonew mines were believed to have been laid over 90 square miles of land, reportedly mostly by the Northern Alliance in the seeking men Taloqan Women in provinces of Badghis and Faryab.
Additional newly-mined areas were reported but not confirmed in and, during the year in the conflict areas north of Kabul. The Northern Alliance reportedly laid these mines in response to the Taliban's summer offensive. An estimatedpersons have been killed or wounded by landmines. Casualties caused by landmines and unexploded ordnance were estimated at 10 to 12 per day. In some parts of the country, including in Herat and Kandahar, almost 90 percent of households were affected by the presence of landmines.
An estimated 96 percent of civilian mine and unexploded ordnance casualties were male.
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Approximately 53 percent of mine and unexploded ordnance casualties occurred in the 18 to 40 age group, while 34 seeking men Taloqan Women in of the casualties involved children, according to the Seeking men Taloqan Women in. Mine Action Center. Landmines and unexploded ordnance resulted in death in approximately 30 percent of cases and in serious injuries and disability, including amputation and blindness, in approximately 20 percent of cases.
With funding from international donors, the U. Nearly all areas that have been cleared were in productive use, and more than 1. Nonetheless, the mines and unexploded ordnance were expected to pose a threat for many years. Clearance rates and safety increased for clearance teams assisted by dogs.
Many were curtailed as a result of Taliban restrictions on women and girls but have been reinvigorated since the fall of the Taliban. Continued warfare, as well as prolonged and severe drought, also resulted in massive, forced displacement of civilians. Respect for Civil Liberties, Including: Freedom of Speech and Press The Constitution somewhat provided for freedom of speech and of the press; however, some senior officials attempted to intimidate journalists and influence their reporting.
The draft press law contained articles that curtail press freedom, specifically information that "offends Islam" or "weakens Afghanistan's army. There were approximately regular publications. The State owned at least 35 of these publications seeking men Taloqan Women in almost all of the electronic news media. All other newspapers were published only sporadically and for the most part were affiliated with different provincial authorities.
Some government officials through political party ties maintained their own communications facilities.
Kabul and other major provincial cities had limited television broadcasts. During the year, the Government maintained departments seeking men Taloqan Women in were pre-disposed to crack down on journalists. For example, the security service Amniat-i Milli did not disband a section that was tasked with surveillance of the news media. Government and factional control of television, radio, and most publications throughout the seeking men Taloqan Women in effectively limited freedom of the press.
During the year, the central Government maintained a predominant role in the news media, and criticism of the authorities was rare. While some independent journalists and writers published magazines and newsletters, according to Reporters Without Borders RWBcirculation largely was confined to Kabul and many were self-censored.
In practice many persons listened to the dozen international stations that Oradea Sluts in in Dari or Pashto. In the countryside, local radio and television stations were under the control of the local authorities.